Performance Testing for Pigeons LDHA analysis
Racing pigeons can be divided into two groups based on physical activity, namely long-distance pigeons and short-distance pigeons, the so-called sprinters. Pigeons on long endurance tracks have the ability to maintain high energy consumption for a longer period of time but have a slow and small acceleration. Unlike sprinters, who have the capacity for immediate and large acceleration, but cannot maintain a high speed for long, only on short distances. Pigeons on long endurance races show high aerobic activity, in contrast to sprint pigeons, which, on the contrary, show anaerobic activity, which supports the rapid reaction of sprinters.
Genetic factors associated with the performance and behavior of racing pigeons include, in particular, SNPs in specific genes, such as LDHA, DRD4, MSTN, LDHB. Pigeons with specific rare genotypes are further crossed in order to select a quality racing offspring with specific alleles. And it is the performance of racing pigeons that is based on several studies and genetic analyzes associated with specific genotypes for specific genes. Genetic analysis of racing pigeons can serve as a prediction for the correct selection of a pigeon for racing and for future offspring.
The LDHA gene encodes the enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase A, which belongs to the family of lactate dehydrogenases. Lactate dehydrogenases are classified as oxidoreductase enzymes, which are involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate in a process called glycolysis, in which the glucose stored in the body in the form of glycogen is broken down in order to obtain energy. LDH is an intracellular enzyme present in the cytoplasm of almost all cells. In the case of tissue hypoxia (oxygen intake in the body is not sufficient for the required amount of energy), when a large amount of lactate is formed, the so-called metabolic acidosis develops.
Scientific studies have shown that LDHA, Lactate dehydrogenase A, is associated with increased performance in racing pigeons.
Racing pigeons with specific genotypes are highly valued, their price ranges from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of euros. Two genotypes associated with increased pigeon performance, AA and AB, are characterized for the LDHA gene. An analysis is performed to determine the genotype in the LDHA gene, the HaeIII polymorphism, in particular the g.2582481G> A polymorphism.
A/A – homozygous. The pigeon has two copies of the A allele. The pigeons have a statistically better racing performance. Only allele A is passed on to the offspring. Allele A is more common in pigeons with the highest performances
A/B – heterozygous. The pigeon carries both the A and B alleles. The pigeon can pass on either the A or B allele to its offspring.
B/B – homozygous. The pigeon has two copies of the B allele. The pigeon passes only the B allele to the offspring.
Allele A is a rare variation. However, some top pigeons have the BB genotype, which means that the A allele is not necessarily necessary to achieve high performance. This suggests that other genes are included in the genes, including speed and distance
SAMPLES: The analysis is performed from a bloodstain or freshly plucked chest feathers of about 6 pieces, as well as for analysis of bird sexing